Hardship and Force Majeure in International Commercial Contracts - eBook
Force Majeure and Hardship are commonly invoked in international trade when unforeseen events occur making performance impossible or impracticable. Most national legislators provide rules to deal with these issues, but the specific solutions adopted in domestic laws vary substantially from one country to another.
In recent years the growing complexity of trade in a globalised world has greatly increased the number of situations where a party can invoke Force Majeure or hardship. Parties need to be able to analyse the nature and characteristics of Force Majeure and hardship and look for contractual clauses which can regulate these issues in conformity with their needs.